Let’s talk about the ideals of beauty. From antiquity to the body-positivity of the 21st century.

The term body positivity has firmly established itself in our consciousness. “The Great Dictionary of the Polish Language,” edited by Piotr Zmigrodzki, defines body positivity as “the view that says that every person should have a cordial attitude towards his or her body regardless of its appearance.” This view is related to a social movement that has remained extremely vibrant on social media in recent years (vlogs, Instagram accounts, TikTok, etc.) and has both supporters and opponents. It is worth talking to young people about the body and its perception throughout the ages (in art, literature and society).


Venus de Milo, ok. 130–100 r. p.n.e.


The module is based on a teacher’s presentation of slides containing selected cultural texts. Each slide can serve as a starting point for students to discuss with the teacher and exchange thoughts. The teacher enables students to express their opinions on the presented topic and can also initiate a discussion. Therefore, although the teacher has prepared the presentation containing selected cultural texts, all participants in the class will be involved in its discussion.


  • Eco U., History of Beauty, Poznań 2018.
  • Eco U., History of Ugliness, Poznań 2018.
  • Krech S., Evolution of the Perception of Women’s Bodies and the Contemporary Demand for Beauty [in:] Education, Art, Ethics in the Context of Plato’s Philosophy – From Theory to Practice, eds. I. Dudzik, B. Czuba, Jarosław 2017.
  • Wójcik K., Redefining the Perception of the Body in Media Discourse – Body Positivity and Body Neutrality [in:] “Student Legal, Administrative and Economic Works Volume 38”, Warsaw 2021.

Author of the module and the script: Ewa Noworzyn-Pilch

Polish language teacher. She has been teaching Polish literature, philosophy and ethics since 1996. She has undertaken various educational initiatives and social campaigns with her students: science camps, theater and journalism projects. She has mentored finalists and winners of the Olympiad of Polish Literature and Language and the Polish edition of the Philosophy Olympiad at her school. The teacher cooperates with Polish universities and theaters in the Silesian region. She has been honored with awards from the Silesian superintendent and the mayor of Chorzow.

Mental tasks


You are reading a report from UNICEF indicating that every month, 1.8 billion people across the world menstruate. Millions of these girls, women, transgender men, and non-binary persons are unable to manage their menstrual cycle in a dignified, healthy way. The onset of menstruation means a new phase and new vulnerabilities in the lives of adolescents. Yet, many adolescent girls face stigma, harassment, and social exclusion during menstruation. Transgender men and non-binary persons also face discrimination due to their gender identity, depriving them of access to the materials and facilities they need. Gender inequality, discriminatory social norms, cultural taboos, poverty,…

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